The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India by Kishori Saran LalThe Legacy of Muslim Rule in India has to be assessed because in spite of a thousand years of Muslim conquest and rule, India has survived with a Hindu ethos. Had India been completely conquered and converted to Muhammadanism, its people would have taken pride in the victories and achievements of Islam. Conversely, had India succeeded like Spain and France to repulse the Muslims for good, its people would have forgotten about Islam and its rule.
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent
The initial entry of Islam into South Asia came in the first century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. He captured Sindh and Multan. Three hundred years after his death Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, the ferocious leader, led a series of raids against Rajput kingdoms and rich Hindu temples, and established a base in Punjab for future incursions. In , the Sultan set out on his last famous expedition to the southern coast of Kathiawar along the Arabian Sea, where he sacked the city of Somnath and its renowned Hindu temple. Muhammad Ghori invaded India in A. After the conquest of Multan and Punjab, he advanced towards Delhi. After about a year, Muhammad Ghori came again to avenge his defeat.
Beginning in the 13th century, several Islamic states were established in the Indian subcontinent in the course of a gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. Razia Sultana has been the only female Islamic ruler. The wealthy Bengal Sultanate has been ruled by the Hussain Shahi dynasty. Emperor Aurangzeb , the most powerful Islamic ruler in Indian history , fully established sharia and Islamic economics across most of the South Asian lands, and he compiled the Fatwa Alamgiri which served as the empire's legal system. After the defeat of the Nawabs of Bengal and the death of Tipu Sultan , the eventual end of the period of Islamic rule of India is marked mainly by the Indian Rebellion of and the beginning of British rule , although Islamic rule persisted in Hyderabad State - other minor princely states also existed until the Union of India in Mahmud of Ghazni 's conquests through jihad is thought to be the earliest form of sultanate in South Asia.
Pirate raids by Indians against Muslim shipping on the Indian Ocean were followed by a reprisal invasion of the Sind — near the Indus River delta. The first Muslim state in India was founded there in The conquered area was not rich enough in agricultural potential to induce the Arabs to establish themselves there permanently, and they left on their own accord. But Arabs returned. The Habbari family acquired an agricultural estate in the village of Baniya, which later became an important town.